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Conflicts between human activities & conservation are at the root of many of these phenomemãng cầu. Such controversies are often highly politicized & widely publicized in the global press và through social media. For example, habitat loss & species loss have sầu resulted from the unregulated exploitation of colchảy (the rare ore for tantalum used in consumer electronics products such as thiết bị di động phones and computers) in Kahuzi-Beiga National Park, one of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s premier forest parks. The park is also home page khổng lồ much of the population of the threatened Eastern Lowl& gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri). Mining has increased gorilla mortality by reducing the animal’s food resources và leading many people displaced by the mining to kill gorillas for their meat. In addition, the mountain gorilla (G. beringei beringei), a cthảm bại relative of the Eastern Lowland gorilla, is also at risk of extinction. However, authorities cite poaching, disease, and crossfire between warring political groups in the vicinity of Virunga National Park as the primary sources of its population decline.


Adult male mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Another example of a widely publicized wildlife controversy involves the relatively recent declines in amphibian populations. Known khổng lồ be important global indicators of environmental health, amphibians have sầu experienced some of the most serious population declines khổng lồ date of all groups that have been assessed globally through the IUCN Red List process (see below). Amphibians (a group that includes salamanders, frogs, toads, & caecilians ), being particularly sensitive sầu khổng lồ environmental changes, are severely threatened by habitat destruction, pollution, the spread of a disease called amphibian chytridiomycosis, and climate change.

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Albino axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

Beyond these notable examples, many of the world’s birds are also at risk. The populations of some bird species (such as some albatrosses, petrels, & penguins) are declining because of longline fishing, whereas those of others (such as certain cranes, rails, parrots, pheasants, and pigeons) have become victims of habitat destruction. On many Pacific islands, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) has wreaked havoc on many bird populations.

A wildlife speciadanh sách holding a brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) that was captured on a military base in Guam as part of a program to lớn prevent the species from spreading to Hawaii. After the species was accidentally introduced khổng lồ Guam in the mid-20th century, it colonized the islvà & preyed relentlessly on native species, causing the decline, local elimination, or extinction of several species of birds, fruit bats, and lizards.

Many fishes and other forms of aquatic and marine life are also threatened. Ahy vọng them are long-lived species that have life history strategies requiring many years to lớn reach sexual maturity. As a result, they are particularly susceptible khổng lồ exploitation. The meat và fins of many sharks, rays, chimaeras, & whales fetch high prices in many parts of the world, which has resulted in the unsustainable harvest of several of those species.

Moreover, freshwater habitats worldwide are progressively threatened by pollution from industry, agriculture, và human settlements. Additional threats to freshwater ecosystems include introduced invasive species (such as the sea lamprey <Petromyzon marinus> in the Great Lakes), the canalization of rivers (such as in the streams that empty into the Everglades in Florida), & the overharvesting of freshwater species (as in the case of the extinct Yunnan box turtle <Cuora yunnanensis> in China). While an estimated 45,000 described species rely on freshwater habitats, it is important to lớn note that humans are also seriously affected by the degradation of freshwater species và ecosystems.

Against this backdrop of threats related to lớn urban expansion & food production, the unsustainable harvest of animal & plant products for traditional medicine and the pet trade is a growing concern in many parts of the world. These activities have implications for local ecosystems and habitats by exacerbating population declines through overharvesting. In addition, they have cross-border repercussions in terms of trade và illegal trafficking.